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Tent Tech & Definition [2013-04-01]

Center pole: The pole(s) that are used to push the tent fabric up to its highest point and that lie on the longitudinal centerline of the tent.
Center sections: The sections of a tent that form the roof between the two end sections.
Clear Span Structures: Tents with an aluminum frame support structure that eliminates the need for center poles for support.
Connecting canopy: An awning between two tents that provides a protected passage way.
Dead load: The load on a structure produced by its own self-weight.
Dressing out: The term used to describe the important final adjustment process after the tent has been raised.
Eave: The lower edge of the tent roof.
Egress: The planned avenue to leave the tent safely.
End sections: The roof sections that form the ends of a sectional tent; for example, a sectional 60x120 foot tent has two end sections that, when put together, form a 60x60 foot tent. Adding 3 20-foot center sections results in the full 120 foot length.
Entrance canopy: An awning for a permanent building or from a main tent to the driveway or street that enhances the visual effect and provides shelter for guests.
Flame resistance: A measure of the property of a material which prevents or retards the passage of excessive heat, hot gases or flames under conditions of use.
Gable: The vertical triangular end wall of a building or structure.
Guy rope: The tie-down rope, cable or webbing located at the tent eave; normally located at the side pole.
Hip: The line of the tent roof running from the top of the end mast down to the corner pole.
Jump rope: A restraint device which fastens to the tent cloth and the top of a tent pole to keep the pole from falling if wind should tend to lift the cloth above the pole.
Lace line: The reinforcement in the tent cloth which runs along the two edges of cloth to be laced together at tent section lines.
Live loads: The weight super-imposed on a structure by its use and occupancy, not including wind load, snow load, earthquake load or dead load.
Occupant load: The total number of people permitted to occupy a structure, or portion thereof, at any one time.
Pitch: The vertical distance of a tent measured from the eave to the top of the tent roof.
Push pole tent: A common style of rental tent, where the tent fabric is lifted up into position by inserting the poles underneath the fabric and using the poles to push the fabric up from underneath.
Quarter pole: The poles between the center poles and the side poles
Ridge: The line defining the longitudinal axis of the tent roof; this line runs along the center pole locations and is the highest point on the tent roof.
Safety factor: A co-efficient used in all good design, which takes into account various uncertainties such as variations in material properties, weather, load experience, fabrication and construction tolerances, etc. The use of appropriate safety factors is not optional.
Section: A tent roof sub-assembly containing patterned strips of fabric joined together with all necessary reinforcements, fittings, etc. When joined together with other sub-assemblies at the lacing, or section lines, they make up the whole of the tent covering.
Sidewalls: The detachable walls installed around the perimeter of a tent.
Stakes: Pointed pegs driven into the ground to secure the guy ropes of a tent.
Snow load: The assumed gravity forces acting on a structure due to the weight of snow, which also includes any necessary accounting for drifting or sliding.
Temporary structure: As specifically defined by the individual applicable code, but generally taken as a structure which will be in place for less than 180 consecutive calendar days.
Tension structure: A tent designed to have all perimeter loading equally distributed over a series of catenary arches, providing great stability.
Tent: A temporary structure, the covering or cladding of which is comprised of pliable, non-rigid membrane, the support of which is achieved by mechanical means such as poles, ropes, anchoring, etc.
Upright pole: The poles which support the periphery of the tent.
Windload: The pressure on a structure due to wind blowing in any direction.


Tent terminology - glossary
Alloy pole (Coleman) - High performance 7075-T9 aluminium, offering strength and lightness of weight. (Duraluminium)

Bathtub groundsheet - The groundsheet fabric extends up the side wall of the inner tent to stop any splash back that may occur.

Black "no see 'um" mesh - Allows ventilation but keeps out flying insects. Stops anyone seeing in - like a net curtain - and is black to be less noticeable to the human eye.

Colour coded poles - Each pole has a different coloured strip corresponding with a coloured tag on the tent sleeve through which the pole has to be threaded. Makes pitching easier.

Compression carry bag - A tent bag with an arrangement of straps around it which, when tightened, reduces the size of the packed tent.

Condensation - The average adult exhales 285 centilitres of water as vapour overnight, this can condense as water droplets on the inside of the tent, adequate ventilation is a must to reduce this effect to a minimum.

"D" shaped door - Literally a door shaped like a "D", when the zip is undone the door rolls right back to give better access than a straight "up and down" zip.

Draught strip/snow valance - An extension to the bottom of the flysheet, reaching down to the ground and extending outwards to keep out draughts or to pile snow onto for insulation.

Duraluminium - A superior aluminium, engineered using aerospace grade metals and technology.

Fibreglass pole - Used in various lengths and diameters to suit each tent. Tips and steel connecting ferrules are smooth finished to give snag free travel through pole sleeves and eyelets. The sections of each pole are "shock-corded" together.

Fire retardant - The components of some tents are treated with fire retardant to reduce the risk of ignition and "flare-up" if accidently ignited, giving the occupants more time to escape safely if a fire accident should occur.

Flysheet - The rain-proofed outer fabric of a tent - usually proofed on the inside with a p.u. coating.

Geodesic design - Where the poles used in a dome tent cross over at different points, giving an exceptionally strong and stable structure. In this design the tension of the inner tent fabric is evenly spread, compressing the pole configuration further and adding to the structural strength.

Hydrostatic head - A measurement of waterproofing - For any fabric to be considered fully waterproof it must be able to withstand the pressure of a column of water 1,000mm high without leaking. This is classed as a hydrostatic head rating of 1,000mm. Tent flysheets are usually treated with a p.u. coating to give a defined level of water resistance. The higher the "hydrostatic head" of a fabric the higher its water resistance.

Hytex -SPU-SLDR - Flysheet fabric used by Vango on their backpacker range of tents e.g. TBS Micro 2000. SLDR fabric is very strong and lightweight it has a "double ripstop weave" to increase strength and tear resistance and uses 40 denier nylon yarn with a 250T thread count. SPU is a silicon elastomer applied to the exterior of the fabric to act as an initial barrier to u.v. degradation, water absorption and soiling.

Inner tent - The separate, inside part of a tent, usually self contained with a sewn-in groundsheet. Forms a bug and snake free, snug sleeping compartment.

Lantern hanging loop - A sewn-in loop, usually near middle of interior of tent roof to give a lantern hanging point - only suitable for an battery powered lantern as the heat from a gas or petrol lantern could melt the tent and/or cause a fire.

Nylon - Fabric used for both flysheets and inner tents, it is lighter weight than polyester, but does not resist u.v. degradation as well. To counteract this, top quality tents using nylon for lightness usually treat exteriors with silicons.

Oxford nylon - A heavy guage nylon sometimes used for pole sleeves for extra durability.

P.E. - Polyethylene, the most durable fabric for groundsheets and virtually universally used, exceptions being specialist tents where weight considerations are critical.

Polyester - Superior fabric to ordinary nylon as it stretches less (the fibres absorb less water), has a higher resistance to u.v. damage and exceptional colour fastness.

Powerflex alloy - Poles exclusive to Vango tents, precision made from T6-7001 alloy, they are strong, flexible and corrosion resistant and are, at present, unmatched for value.

P.U. - Polyurethane, a flexible, waterproof coating applied in layers to the inside of tent flysheets. The thickness and number of applications will determine the hydrostatic head of the fabric. P.U. also bonds strongly with the hot seam tape used to seal the stitch holes in seams.

Ripstop - A type of weave, double ripstop has re-inforcing woven both horizontally and vertically into the fabric increasing its strength and tear resistance.

Seam sealant - Flysheet seams are sealed with waterproof tape during manufacture, however stressed areas, such as points where loops and toggles are sewn into seams, can start to seep, we recommend that these areas are treated with seam sealant to minimise this possibility.

Shock cord - Thin elasticated cord that is threaded through the hollow sections of fibreglass tent poles, holding the sections together, but enabling them to be collapsed and folded for packing.

Snow valance - See draught strip.

Taped seams - The stitch holes in the flysheet seams need to be sealed against water leakage, this is done using a hot-air tape which strongly bonds with the p.u. coating.

Tension adjusters - Webbing loops with buckles used as pegging points on the main stress areas on some flysheets. They allow for correct adjustment of the flysheet particularly when pitched on uneven ground.

T.B.S. - Tension Band System used on Vango tunnel or hoop tents, this gives greater strength and stability in adverse weather conditions by allowing the hoop structure to be supported and stabilised in side winds. The hoop apex is connected to the base by a system of adjustable webbing straps giving an internal bracing system for each hoop.

U.V. degradation - All fabrics suffer from the effects of sunlight, the ultra violet rays slowly destroy the integrity of the fabric as well as bleaching out the colour, eventually leaving it weak and brittle. Polyester resists these effects far better than nylon hence its popularity as a flysheet material. Problems of this nature usually occur when tents are pitched for long periods of time in sunlight, normal use (one or two weeks at a time) and good care, will give most tents a life of many years.

Vis-a-vis - Where the inner bedroom compartments face each other across the living area.
Zipped gusset - A gusseted flap which can either be zipped closed, down each side, or can be unzipped and guyed out into an open position thus controlling the amount of ventilation.

Zippped GussetA closure of material that can be zipped each side to open and close ventilation.

Backpacking tents come in all sorts of shapes, sizes, and price ranges. The number of choices can seem overwhelming. At Backcountry Edge , we help you cut through the sales hype, so you can be sure you're getting the right tent for your next backcountry adventure. Importance of the Right Tent Why is selecting the right tent so important? One major reason is that a mix of the wrong backpacking tent and bad weather can lead to an unpleasant backcountry experience. Just imagine for a moment: It's a cold rainy night in the backcountry. After a hard day on the trail, you and your hiking partners are packed into a small cheap tent. You're practically lying on top of each other, and yet you're still pressed against the sides of the tent. The tent seems to be leaking from everywhere. You watch helplessly as your sleeping bag and clothing soak up the endless trickles of water. As a cold wind howls down the side of the mountain, you begin to shiver. That cheap tent no longer seems like such a great deal. Obviously, a quality backpacking tent will help you avoid this miserable (and potentially dangerous) situation. However, a good tent does more than just keep you dry. A tent is a welcome oasis where a hiker can escape insects and an assortment of small backcountry creatures. In windy conditions, a tent can be a calm place to eat dinner, play cards or simply relax. And at the end of a long day, many backcountry hikers gain a comforting sense of security when they zip up inside their tent. How to Select the Right Tent Before choosing a backpacking tent, you must know the potential weather conditions for the time and place you plan to hike. Always be prepared for the worst. Look beyond the average temperature, and consider the possibility of extremes in wind, cold, heat, rain, and snow. After you've analyzed the potential weather conditions, you're ready to move on and select your tent. There are three basic questions to answer when selecting a backpacking tent: 1) What are the weather extremes you could be camping in? Tents are rated based on the number of "seasons" they can be used in. There are basically 3 ratings: -3-season tents are rated for use during spring, summer, and fall conditions at reasonable altitudes. 3-season backpacking tents are lightweight and typically have large mesh panels to allow for good ventilation. -4-season tents (also known as "winter" tents) are heavier and more robust. They are built to withstand higher wind and snow loads. 4-season tents have less ventilation in order to retain heat. ( Keep in mind that extreme conditions of wind and snow are often found at higher altitudes even during spring, summer and fall months.) -Convertible tents are 4-season tents with removable or zip up panels that cover mesh areas. In fair weather conditions, when sturdiness is not so much of a concern, pack weight can be reduced by leaving some of the poles at home. Convertible tents tend to be a compromise. In general, convertible tents are not as sturdy as true 4-season tents, and they're usually not as lightweight as 3-season tents. Our Advice:A quality 3-season tent will meet the needs of most beginner level backpackers. But, if there's a chance that you'll encounter very high winds, more than a few inches of snow, and/or extreme cold, you should seriously consider a more robust 4-season or convertible tent. 2) How many hikers will be sleeping in the tent? Tents are grouped by the manufacturer's rated sleeping capacity. This capacity indicates the maximum number of hikers that can sleep together in the tent. It is not uncommon for the tent manufacturer's ratings to be optimistic. For smaller hikers or couples, the tight quarters may not present a problem. However, taller and larger hikers, and backpackers who prefer some personal space should consider the larger tents within a rating capacity, or even step up to the next rated size. Also consider the inside height of the tent. You may want ample height to sit up for reading, playing a game, or even for changing clothes. Our Advice:2 and 3 person tents tend to be the best choice for most backpackers. If you plan to hike with 4 or more people, larger tents are available, but in the backcountry, it can be difficult to find ample flat space to set them up. It's usually better to go with a pair of 2 person tents when hiking with 4 people. 3) How much weight are you willing to carry? All other things being equal, larger, sturdier tents weigh more than smaller, more delicate tents. Space and comfort in a tent come at the price of additional weight in your pack. If reducing pack weight is important to you, ounces (and even pounds) can be shaved off your burden by sacrificing some space. For some hikers, especially those hiking long distances, this is a minor sacrifice. For the true minimalist, there are very lightweight bivy sacks, bivy shelters, and simple tarps available. However, minimalist backpacking is not for everyone. Going this route requires a higher level of experience, and the minimalist must sacrifice some of the creature comforts found in more traditional tents. We encourage beginning hikers to start with a conventional backpacking tent. We also recommend that beginners gain some experience in a variety of weather conditions before making a decision to attempt the minimalist route. Our Advice: For beginners, 2-person tents in the 4.5 to 6 pound range or 3-person tents in the 5.5 to 7.5 pound range tend to be good choices. For most backpackers, a tent is the heaviest piece of equipment they will carry in their pack. As a general rule, your total loaded pack weight should not exceed 25-30% of your body weight. If you go with a 2 or 3-person tent, you and your hiking partner can share the load by having one person carry the tent fly and poles, while the other carries the tent body. These are the basic factors to consider when purchasing a backpacking tent. When you've hiked many miles into the backcountry, and the weather turns bad, you'll be thankful that you're carrying quality gear in your pack.

Camping Glossary----Snowshoe Glossary----Cross Country Ski Glossary----Kayak Glossary Camping Glossary Multi fuel stove: stove that can burn different kind of fuel : butane, naphtha, kerosene, diesel, aviation fuel, white gas. A must for travellers Cartridge stove: stove that use butane/propane or propane cartridge, not refillable Cook set : a set of pots and pans Summer camp cook set : pot, pan, plate and cup Filter : water treatment system by filtration Purifier : water treatment system by purification Bivy : the smallest tent for one or two people, waterproof, with a mosquito net, ultra compact with or without poles Bug bivy : the smallest net tent, for one or two people, very compact with poles (not waterproof!) Inflatable mattress : need a pump or a very good pair of lungs Self-inflatable mattress : the most compact and comfortable camping mattress on the market, with a valve for self-inflation and additional inflation with the mouth. Foam pad : the cheapest one but a bit thing, so not very comfortable for the back Winter bag cover : protect again humidity and upgrade the isolation of the sleeping bag, can also be used as an emergency shelter. Compression bag : bag with straps to reduce the volume of a sleeping bag, very useful for hiking excursions and sea kayaking over night trip. Mummy sleeping bag : a figure-hugging bag, with a hood, the warmest Rectangular sleeping bag : more space to move around but not as warm than a mummy, less compact, affordable Semi-rectangular sleeping bag : compromise between the rectangular and the mummy, become narrows at the feet, with a hood Sleeping bag with down insulation : more compact, more durable, more comfortable Sleeping bag with a synthetic insulation : warm even if wet, more affordable than the down, heavier than the down “Combi” sleeping bag : a mix of natural isolation and synthetic (down feather 600 and Primaloft Sport, from the fusion series of Marmot) Self-portable tent : tent that must be fixt to the ground to stand up right, more compact and lighter 3 seasons tent : with many net windows and a double roof Convertible tent : with closing net windows and a double roof 4 seasons tent : to brave winter weather, design to resist the weight of the snow, fabric more resistant, with or without a double roof Expedition tent : very resistant construction, for the extreme climate Snowshoe Glossary Bindings : system that attach the boots to the snowshoes, made in leather or moulded plastic. Crampons : pieces underneath the snowshoe to crip the snow, made out of steel or aluminium. not on traditional wood and rawhide snowshoe. Decking : centre part of the snowshoes that keep you on top of the snow, made in rawhide or plastic :Olafin, l’Hypalon, l’ArcTec… Frame : structure of the snow shoe, could be made in ; aluminium, anodized aluminium, moulded polypropylene, polymer and wood. Heels raiser : very useful for climbing steep hill Pivot : system that connect the binding to snowshoe. The pivot provide a large movement, could be a steel axe or a flexible caoutchouc strap. Telescopic poles : poles with adjustable length depending on snow condition and inclinaison, very useful for balance and coordination, need large baskets for heavy snow.


Cross Country Ski Glossary Back country ski : to ski outside of the groom trail, longer and wider than the classic ski, waxable or fish scale, with edges or not Base : underneath the ski Bindings : system that attach the boots to the ski, many models are available depending on the kind of skis Camber : longitudinal curve of the ski Classic ski: ski for the classic style and the groom trail, waxable or fish scale Edge : steel piece along both side of the ski to facilitate turn Fish scales : wax less base, no maintenance needed Gaiter : clothing between the boots and the legs to keep the snow outside of the boots, a must for backcountry skiing, also very useful to play in the snow with the kids Hybrid ski : ski that combine classic style and skating style or classic style and back country style Pole strap : strap attach to the handle to increase the grip and make sure you do not lose your pole Side cut : shape of the ski, the difference between the tip the tail and the centre Skating ski : ski for the skating style, shorter with a bigger camber Skins : band glue or attach to the base of the backcountry skis to climb, made in ; nylon, mohair or de plastic Telescopic poles : poles with adjustable length depending on snow condition and inclinaison, very useful for balance and coordination, need large baskets for heavy snow. Do not used poles with “antishock system” Wax : coating for ski Waxing : the action of putting wax on skis Kayak Glossary Bilge pump : pump to empty a kayak after a capsize Bow : front part of a boat Bulkhead : water tight wall between the cockpit and the stowage Cockpit : passenger compartment with seat, foot rests and thigh braces Cockpit cover : piece of nylon or neoprene to close the coaming Coaming : part around the cockpit to fix the spray shirt Day hatch : small stowage behind the cockpit, accessible event when paddling on the water Deck : top of the kayak Deck line or perimeter : rope tight along the side of the kayak to grab on when in the water after a cap size Diving suit : clothing for nautical / aquatic activities in cold water wet suit : shorty or full in neoprene, thigh to the body dry suit : made in nylon or rubber mousse laminated, water thigh if not broken Drip rings: rubber rings on the shaft of the paddle to prevent water from running on the hands and also useful to keep the right grip Dry bag : water tight bag for food, camping equipment, clothing… Float pump : piece of foam fix around the pump Foot rests : to brace and manoeuvre the kayak if it got a rudder Hatch : opening of stowage Hull : part underneath the kayak, in ``V`` or ``U`` shape Neoprene booties : boots that protect against the cold and give easy access to the foot rests Paddle jacket : jacket with water tight wrist and neck, many types are availabledry top with wrist and neck rubber sealsemi-dry with wrist rubber seal and Velcro attach for the necksplash jacket with neck and wrist Velcro attach Paddle float: safety gear, inflatable or foam to do a self rescue will in the water Paddle leach : piece of equipment that connect the kayak and the paddle, useful to take picture of a whale or if you capsize and do know how to roll PFD : personal flotation device, look for the model made for kayaker they are more comfortable, shorter at the waist and have useful small pocket. Poogies : mitts attach to the paddle, made in neoprene or waterproof fabric with a fleece inside, a must for sea kayaking Radio VHF : portable marine radio Roll : manœuver to return a kayak up side up after a cap size so the kayaker can stay half dry and in the kayak Rudder : retractable piece at the stern of the kayak, help to keep the course and to change direction, control with the foot rests Skeg : retractable piece underneath the kayak to keep the course, only available on a few kayaks Spray skirt: piece of equipment in fabric or in neoprene that keep the water outside of the kayak, put on by the kayaker and them fix to the coaming Stern : back part of a boat Stowage : water proof compartment to store equipment in front or/and in the back of the kayak and also for the flotation of the boat Thigh braces : to brace the boat with the thigh, needed to execute a roll Throw bag : floatable bag with rope easy to throw Wet exit : technique to exit the kayak after a capsize or an unsuccessful roll  
Kinds of kayak Air frame kayak : portable and inflatable Recreational kayak : kayak for navigation on flat water rivers, lakes and also for day paddle along the coast. More stable than a Touring kayak Sit-on-Tops kayak : great for swimming, fishing and diving, user-friendly design Tandem kayak or double boat : for two people (not available in white water kayak) Touring kayak : kayak made for sea and Saint-Laurent river conditions Whitewater kayak : the small kayak to go down white water riversPlay boat: smaller Whitewater kayak made for playing in the surf and to execute figuresSurf boat : type of Play boat kayak made for surfing the waves on a river and in the ocean, with more edges and a kayaker position behind the centre point of the kayak Kayak Composition Carbon fibre and Kevlar kayak : lighter but fragile Fibre glass kayak : the best buy, lighter than polyethylene and easy to repair Kevlar kayak : light and expensive Polyethylene kayak : durable, more affordable, harder to repair 
Fishing TerminologyAAcidity - The degree of sourness of a usually water soluble substance. Acidity is measured in pH, with 7 being neutral and 2 being a strong acid. Action - Measure of rod performance that describes the elapse time between flexion and return to straight configuration, ranges from slow to fast, with slow being the most amount of flexion. Also refers to the strength of the rod (light, meduim and heavy) with light being a limber rod and a heavy stout rod. The movement of a lure due to its built-in properties. Active Fish - Fish that are feeding heavily and striking aggressively. Adipose Fin - On some species the fatty fin located between the dorsal and tail fin. Air Bladder - A tough walled gas filled sac in the upper part of the body cavity of many bony fishes just beneath the vertebral column; its principal function is to offset the weight of heavier tissue such as bone. In some fishes used for sound production or respiration. Alewife - A food fish belonging to the herring family. Algae - Simple plant organisms. Alkalinity - Measure of the amount of acid neutralizing bases. Alley - An opening between patches of emergent weeds; also the parallel space separating emergent weeds and the shoreline. Ambloplites rupestris - Latin name for Rock Bass Amp - Amperes - Measure of electrical current. Amp Hour - Storage capacity measurement of a deep-cycle batter obtained by multiplying the current flow in amps by the hours that it's produced. Anadromous - Fish that ascend rivers to spawn Anal Fin - The median, unpaired, ventrally located fin that lies behind the anus, usually on the posterior half of the fish. Angler - Person using pole or rod and reel to catch fish. Angling - Usually refers to the recreational catching of fish by means of hook and line; sport fishing; game fishing. Annelids - Members of the phylum Annelida, a group of worm-like invertebrates whose bodies consist of a series of rings or segments (e.g., earthworms, leeches). Anti-reverse - System that prevents reels from spinning in reverse. Artificial Baits - Lures or flies made of wood, plastic, metal, feathers, or similar inert material. BBacklash - A tangle of line caused by spool overrun on a baitcasting reel. Also referred to as Professional Overrun or Spaghette. Backwater - Shallow area off a river. Bag Limit - Restriction in the number of fish that an angler may retain, generally on a per trip or daily basis. Bail - Metal, semi-circular arm on an open-face spinning reel that engages the line after a cast. Baitcasting - Fishing with a revolving-spool reel and baitcasting rod; reel mounted on topside of rod. Baitfish - Small fish often eaten by predators. Bar - Long ridge in a body of water. Basic Needs - Refers to the three survival requirements of fish: reproduction, security, and food. Bay - Major indentation in the shoreline of a lake or reservoir. Benthic - Occurring at or near the bottom of a body of water. Biology - The study of living things. Biomass - The aggregate amount of living matter or a specific species within a specific habitat. The total number of a specific species in a specific habitat. Black Bass - Term used to describe several types of bass; the most common being smallmouth, largemouth, and spotted bass. Blank - The main component of a finished fishing rod, minus the guides and handle. Blue Bird Skies - A term used to describe bright, sunny, blue sky conditions that often makes fishing tougher. Brackish - Water of intermediate salinity between seawater and freshwater. Break - Distinct variation in otherwise constant stretches of cover, structure, or bottom type. Breakline - A line of abrupt change in depth, bottom type, or water clarity in the feature of otherwise uniform structure. Brushline - The inside or the outside edge of a stretch of brush. Bucketmouth - Largemouth Bass - A black bass, body green-shaded with a broad, continuous dark stripe along each side, belly white to yellowish, dorsal fin almost completely separated between spiny and soft portion and lower jaw extends past the gold-colored eye. Also called bigmouth bass, green trout, green bass. Bullet Sinker - A cone shaped piece of lead, zinc or steel of varying weights that slides up and down the line. Buzzbait - An artificial lure with propeller-style blades that stirs up the water surface upon retrieve; a type of topwater lure. Buzzing - Retrieving spinnerbaits or buzzbaits along the surface so they splash water. CC&R - Catch and Release. CPR - Catch, Photograph, Release. Cabbage - Any of several species of weeds, located above the surface or underwater. Caddis - An insect of the order Trichoptera, characterized by swept-back wings; also, an insect that goes through a complete metamophisis much like a butterfly. Canal - A man made waterway used for navigation. Canoe - A light, long, narrow boat with sharp ends and curved sides propelled by hand-driven paddles. Carolina Rig - A deep-water assembly comprised of a heavy slip sinker, plastic bead, barrel swivel, 16-to 18-inch leader, hook, and soft-plastic bait such as a worm, lizard, or crawfish. Rigged weedless with the hook buried in the body of the bait, this combination is excellent for fishing ledges, points, sandbars, and humps. Channel - The bed of a stream or river. Chugger - Topwater plug with a dished-out (concave or "cupped") head designed to make a splash when pulled sharply. Cisco - Any of several whitefishes found primarily in the Great Lakes region. Clevis - The swivel device to which a spinner blade is attached and which allows the blade to rotate. Cold Front - A weather condition accompanied by high, clear skies, and a sudden drop in temperature. Contact Point - The deepest position on structure where a bass angler can first effectively present his lure to bass as they migrate from deep water. Coontail - Submerged aquatic plant of the hornwort family typically found in hard water; charactreized by stiff, forked leaves. Cosmic Clock - The sun's seasonal effect on water and weather conditions relating to barometric pressure, wind, and cloud cover. Cove - An indentation along a shoreline. Cover - Natural or manmade objects on the bottom of lakes, rivers, or impoundments, especially those that influence fish behavior. Examples include stick-ups, tree lines, stumps, rocks, logs, pilings, docks, and weed patches. Crankbait - A plug with a lip that causes it to dive. The bigger the lip, the deeper it dives. Creek - A natural stream of water usually small in size and often a tributary of a river. Creel limit - The number of fish an angler can keep as set by local or state regulations